Nov 15, 2014

Computer Generation

http://www.aluth.com/2013/05/computer-genaration.html
mß.Kl mrïmrd $ Computer Generation
wo fokak yokafka mß.Kl wdrïnfha isg wo olajd mß.Kl mrïmrd ms<sno  j¾.SlrK úia;rh¡ fudlo yeufohlu wdrïnh jeo.;afka'

 
AL / OL  GIT lrk ish¨‍fokdgu jf.au ´fku mß.Kl course tlla lfrd;a wmsg uq,skau bf.k .kak fjk wksjd¾h mdvula ;uhs fï'

 0th Generation ( Earliest Computers)


mß.Klh lshkafka we;af;kau .Kl hka;% yd hï ;rula iudk ^100]la fkfuhs'& hï ;rula iïnkaO" tajdg iu.dój ÈhqKq jqkq hka;% úfYaIhla' uq,a ld,Sk mß.Kl fndfyduhla Ndú;d jqfka .Kkh lsÍu i|yd ;uhs' tajd w;ßka uQ,slju .efkk hka;%hla ;uhs Abacus tl lshkafka' ^ Abacus tl yenehs chinese NdKavhla ;uhs' ta jqkdg fyd|g jev lrkj¨‍' yenehs ta jf.au frdafï;a fïl Ndú;d jqkd &


Abacus tl .ek kï f.dvla wh wy,d we;s lsh,d' t;a Antikythera Mechanism lshk tl .ek kï iuyrúg wy,d ke;=j we;s' we;af;kau fïl mß.Klhla úÈhg y÷kd.;af;;a fndfydu uE;l§ we;af;kau 2006 §' fïl ks¾udKh lr,d ;sfhkafka l%s'mQ' 100 fyda Bg;a fmr lsh,hs ld, ks¾Kh lr,d ;sfhkafka'

B,.g ;j jeo.;au hka;%hla ;uhs íf,aia meial,a úiska 1642 ks¾udKh l,
Pascaline Machine
fyj;a meial,a hka;%h' tajf.au wmg wu;l l, fkdyelsu mqoa.,fhla ks¾udKh l, ;j;a hka;% 2la ;sfhkjd' ta flkd ;uhs pd,aia nefíÊ' Tyq ;uhs mß.Klfha mshd úÈhg;a y÷kajkafka'1937 § Tyq Analytical Engine lshk hka;%h ks¾udKh l<d' B<Õg Tyq Difference Engine kï hka;%h ie,iqï l<d' t;a m%Yakh jqfka Tyqf.a ie,iqï j,g wkqj ta hka;% ksiswdldrj ks¾udKh lsÍug ta ldf,a mej;s ;dlaIkh m%udKj;a fkdùu' ta ksidu Difference Engine hka;%h we;af;kau ks¾udKh jqfka pd,aia nefíÊ f.a ld,hg miqjhs'

flfia fj;;a Tyqf.a ie,iqu b;du;a id¾:l mß.Klhl ie,iqula jqkd' ta ksiduhs Tyqj mß.Klfha mshd úÈhg;a y÷kajkafka' óg wu;rj ;j;a hdka;%sl mß.Kl lsysmhlau uq,a ld,fha ìysjqKd' tajd ;uhs m<uqjk mrïmrdfõ mß.Kl j,g wä;d,u oeïfï'


01. First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tube


m<uq mß.Klh ie§fï§ ßla; k,hla ndú;d lr,d ;sfhkj ta jf.au fuys u;lh úÈhg Magnetic Drum 1 la nú; lr,d ;sfhkjd'

ta jf.au fuu mß.Klh ldurhl ;rï úYd,;ajhlska hqla; Wkd fuh l%shd;aul ùfï§ b;d úYd, úÿ,s n,hla wjYH fj,d ;sfhkjd b;ska fï ioyd f,dl= úhoulao orkak isÿ  Wkd" tf,iu fuh Ndú;d lrk wêl úÿ,s n,h ksid úYd, jYfhka ;dmh bmoùuo tu.ska mß.Klfha ld¾hlaIu;djh wvq ùuo f,dl= wjdishla jqkd'
fï wjÈfha§ mß.Klh iu. l%shdlsÍug Ndú; l, NdIdj Machine Language ,kï jk w;r fuh mß.Kl Ndú;fha§ fhdod .kq ,enQ my, uÜgfï mß.Kl NdIdjls' tu ksid fuu mß.Kl u.ska jrlg úiÈh yels jqfha tl .eg¿jla mu‚' fuhg o;a; we;=¿ lsÍug Punch Card f,i yÿkajkq ,enQ isÿre iys; Card m;a fyda lvodis má ndú;d l, w;r fuys úiÿï uqøKh lsÍfuka ,nd .;a;d'

fuu hq.fha Ndú;d l, mß.Kl w;r
UNIVAC
iy ENIAC hk mß.Kl yeÈkaúh yel'



02. Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors


Vacuum Tube
fjkqjg Transistors ndú;d lrñka ksmojk ,o mß.Kl fuu hq.fha§ ìysúh'

1947§ Transistors fidhd .eksu;a iu. fuu wjÈfha ksmojQ mß.Kl j, úfYaI fjkialï lsysmhla isÿ úh' mß.klfha úYd,;ajh l=vd ùu" ld¾hlaIu ùu" ,dnodhs ùu ta w;ßka m%odk fõ' fuh m<uq hq.fha mß.Kl j,g jvd úYajdi odhs jqjo Transistors u.ska ksmojk ;dmh fmr mßÈu úh' fï ksid mß.klhg isÿ jk ydksfhys fjkila isÿ fkdùh'

fuu hq.fh§o o;a; w;=,;a lsÍug Punch Card f,i yÿkajkq ,enQ isÿre iys; Card m;a fyda lvodis má Ndú;d l, w;r úiÿï uqøKh lsÍfuka ,nd .;a;d'
 Cobol
iy  Fortran hk mß.Kl NdIdjkaf.a uq,drïNh fuh f,i ie,lsh yelshs'
fuu mß.Klo uq,a hq.fha mß.Kl fukau fokq ,nk úOdkhka u;lfha rojd.kakg iu;a jQ w;r  ta ioyd fhdod .;a Magnetic Drum fjkqjg  Magnetic Core hk ;dlaIkh Ndú;d lrkq ,enqjd'


03. Third Generation (1946-1971) Integrated Circuits



ix.Dys; mßm; Ndú;h;a iu. mß.Kl j, kj hq.hla fuu wjÈfha§ we;s úh' fuh mß.Kl úldYkfha 3jk hq.h f,i yeÈkaúh yelshs' óg fmr Ndú; l, Transistors tlg tl;= fldg ;jÿrg;a l=vd jk fia ilia l, ix.Dys; mßm; fuu hq.fha mß.Kl ioyd fhdod .kak ,§' tf,iu fïjd tl;= fldg idok ,o Semiconductor mß.Kl ksmoùug Ndú;d úh' 

fuu kj ;dlaIKh;a iu. mß.Kl b;sydifha iqúfiais wjêhlg fuu hq.fha§ msúiqkd fuf;la ndú;d l,  Punch Card iy uqøK lghq;= fjkqjg Key board iy Monitors Ndú;h wernqks'

tfiau w;=re uqyqK;la ^Interface& iy m%odk fufyhqï moaO;shla ^ Operating System & Ndú;h m<uqfjkau werUqfka fuu hq.fha§ jk w;r fï ksid jev igyka lsysmhla iu. tljr jev lsßfï yelshdj mß.Klhg ,enq‚' fuu mß.Kl j, m%udKh iy ñf,ys wvq ùu jeä fokd w;r fuu mß.Kl m%p,s; ùugo fya;=jla úh'

fu;eka isg j¾;udkfha wms Ndú;d lrk mß.Kl olajd mß.Kl j, mßKduh isÿ fjkjd wms B,.g n,uq ta úia;rh'


04. Fourth Generation (from 1971) Microprocessors


         ;dlaIKfha we;s jQ ÈhqKqj;a iu. ix.Dys; mßm; oi oyia .Kkla tlg tl;= fldg ;ks Silicon Chip  1la idok ,§' fuh j¾;udkfha wm Ndú;d lrk Processor ytl f,i yÿkajhs' fuu  Microprocessor mß.Kl ;dlaIKhg úYd, fjkila isÿ lsÍug iu;a úh' uq,a hq.fha ldurhla ;rï jQ mß.Klh wf;a f.k hdug yels ;rfï l=vdjg ksIamdokh lsÍug fuu ;dlaIKhg yels úh'


fï w;r j¾I 1971 § ksmojkq ,enQ Intel 4004  Microprocessor tl m%Odk ia:dkhla .kS' m%:ufhka 1981§  IBM yiud.u úiska .Dyia: Ndú;h ioyd mß.Klhla ksmoùh" fu;eka mgka l%ufhka l=vd jk f,i;a myiqfjka tyd fuyd f.k hd yels f,i;a mß.Kl ksIamdokh úh'

fïjd uq,a hq.fha mß.Kl j,g jvd fnfyúka l=vd jQ neúka myiqfjka cd, .; lsÍugo mq¿jka úh'


05. Fifth Generation - Artificial Intelligence


mß.Kl úldYkfha b;du;au jeo.;a wjêh f,i fuh yeÈkaúh yel' mß.Klhgu fjkajQ nqoaêhla iu. mß.Kl l%shd lsÍu wdrïN úh' mß.Klfha j¾;udk iy wkd.; wjêh oelafjk  hq.h f,i fuh ie,fla'

Artificial_intelligence

j¾;udkfha Ndú; fjkVoice Recognition jeks jevigyka Ndú; úu werîu;a Parallel Processor iy Super Conductor yjeks mßm: mß.Klfha Ndú;d jk lD;Su nqoaêh (Artificial Intelligence) jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug;a fya;= úh¡
Artificial_intelligence

wjidkfha mß.Kl yeirùug úOdk ,nd Èu ioyd idudkH Ndú; lrk NdIdjka Ndú;hg yels ù we;s w;r fuh Nature Language kï fõ'
 

tfykï Thd,g oeka fï .ek oekqula ,nkak we;s Thdf.a
woyia odkak;a wu;l fkdlrkak¡


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